Cooperation is the common endeavor of two more people to perform a task or reach a jointly cherished goal. Like competition and conflict, there are different forms of cooperation, based on group organization and attitudes. In this form, known as primary cooperation, group and individual fuse. The group contains nearly all of each individual’s life. The rewards of the group’s work are shared with each member. There is an interlocking identity of individual, group, and task performed. Means and goals become one, for cooperation itself is valued.
While primary cooperation is most often characteristic of preliterate societies, secondary cooperation is characteristic of many modern societies. In secondary cooperation, individuals devote only part of their lives to the group. Cooperation itself is not a value. Most members of the group feel loyalty, but the welfare of the group is not the first consideration. Members perform tasks so that they can separately enjoy the fruits of their cooperation in the form of salary, prestige, or power. Business offices and professional athletic teams are examples of secondary cooperation. In the third type, called tertiary cooperation or accommodation, latent conflict underlies the shared work. The attitudes of the cooperation parties are purely opportunistic; the cooperation is loose and fragile. Accommodation involves common means to achieve antagonistic goals; it breaks when the common means cease to aid each party in reaching its goal. This is not, strictly speaking, cooperation at all, and hence the somewhat contradictory term ‘‘antagonistic cooperation” is sometimes used for this relationship.
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Question 21: What is the author’s main purpose in the first paragraph of the passage?
Question 22: The word “cherished” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to __________.
Question 23: Which of the following statements about primary cooperation is supported by information in passage?
Question 24: The word “fuse” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to _________ .
Question 25: According to the passage, why do people join groups that practice secondary cooperation?
Question 26: The word “fragile” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ________ .
Question 27: Which of the following is an example of the third form of cooperation as it is defined in the passage?
Question 28: As used throughout the passage, the term “common” is closest in meaning to which of the following?
Question 29: Which of the following is NOT given as a name of the third type of cooperation?
Question 30: Which of the following best describes the overall organization of the passage?